References of Models

- NUVEL-1
- DeMets, C., R. G. Gordon, D. F. Argus, and S. Stein, Current plate motions, Geophys. J. Int., 101, 425-478, 1990.
- (Relative Motion Model, Pacific Plate fixed, 2 m.y. average velocity)
- NUVEL-1A
- DeMets. C., R. G. Gordon, D. F. Argus, and S. Stein, Effect of recent revisions to the geomagnetic reversal time scale on estimate of current plate motions, Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, 2191-2194, 1994.
- (Revised version of NUVEL-1, Euler poles are same)
- [Note 1] Model parameters for Philippine Sea Plate are based on Seno et al. (JGR, 1993)
- [Note 2] Velocities calculated based on NUVEL-1 and NUVEL-1A may be 4.5% and 2% faster than those measured by space geodetic methods by using VLBI/SLR (Gordon, Nature 1993)
- MORVEL
- DeMets, C., R. G. Gordon, and D. F. Argus, Geologically current plate motions, Geophys. J. Int., 181, 1-80, 2010
- (Relative Motion Model, Pacific Plate fixed. New model for 25 tectonic plates, mid-ocean ridge spreading rates and faults azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates, and GPS station velocities and azimuthal data are used for 6 smaller plates with little or no connection to mid-ocean ridges)
- NNR-NUVEL-1A
- DeMets. C., R. G. Gordon, D. F. Argus, and S. Stein, Effect of recent revisions to the geomagnetic reversal time scale on estimate of current plate motions, Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, 2191-2194, 1994.
- (Absolute Motion Model, No net rotation)
- HS3-NUVEL-1A
- Gripp, A.E., and Gordon, R.G., Young tracks of hotspots and current plate velocities, Geophys. J. Int., 150, 321-361, 2002.
- (Absolute Motion Model, hotspot reference frame)
- NNR-MORVEL
- Argus, D.F., Gordon, R.G and DeMets, C. Geologically current motion of 56 plates relative to the no-net rotation reference frame, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems , 12, doi:10.1029/2011GC00375., 2011.
- Bird, P. An updated digital model of plate boundaries, Geochemisty, Geophysics, Geosystems, 4, 1027, doi:10.1029/2001GC000252, 2003.
- (Absolute Motion Model, No net rotation, for MORVEL 25 plates and Bird(2003)'s 31 plates)

Used Equations

- rotation vector
- MωF= MωP - FωP = (ωx, ωy, ωz)
- rotation pole
- plat = atan(ωz / sqrt (ωx*ωx+ωy*ωy))
- plon = atan(ωy/ωx)
- rotation rate
- rate = sqrt(ωx*ωx+ωy*ωy*+ωz*ωz)
- velocity at a point (tlat, tlon)
- Vew = radius * cos (tlat)*rate*(sin(plat)-cos(plat)*tan(tlat)*cos(plon-tlon))
- Vns = radius * rate * cos(plat)*sin(tlon-plon)
- Velocity = sqrt (Vew*Vew + Vns*Vns)
- Direction = atan(Vew/Vns)

Last revised: 16 January, 2018: bug report to okino at aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp